Signal may send cancer’s cellular factories into overdrive
A network of signals active in almost all types of cancer sends the protein factories in our cells into overdrive, and may help fuel a tumour’s uncontrolled growth, new research suggests.
Scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, one of the world’s most influential cancer research institutes, identified a molecular trigger responsible for ramping up activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – the cellular factory that makes the building blocks cancer cells need to keep growing.
The findings may help to explain how cancer cells maintain their high levels of metabolism – and could uncover future targets for cancer treatment
The top three images show human hepatocarcinoma cells with the endoplasmic reticulum (blue) and nucleus (red). Copyright: Dr Chris Bakal, The Institute of Cancer Research, London.
The bottom image shows human epithelial cells from breast tissue treated with Torin, an inhibitor of TOR kinase, where the endoplasmic reticulum is (green), nuclei (red) and F-actin (grey) Copyright: Dr Chris Bakal, The Institute of Cancer Research, London.
“A network of signals active in almost all types of cancer sends the protein factories in our cells into overdrive, and may help fuel a tumour’s uncontrolled growth, new research suggests.” THIS IS NOT NEWS. THE NEWS IS HOW THIS PROCESS IS CONTROLLED (VIA THE TOR KINASE PATHWAY)
Kawaii means cute in Japanese. Helps you remember Kawasaki’s disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, with strawberry tongue, coronary artery aneurysms and Asian predisposition. That’s all! PS: I love Japanese culture & kawaii things :3 I wanna visit Japan someday, wear a kimono, eat Sushi & Onigiri, color my hair pink, cosplay anime and watch cars drift ^__^ I love how this post allowed me to express my love for Japan & calligraphy =D
There’s no one moment I remember distinctly when I realized my love for cooking. Cooking has been part of me for as long as I can remember: recipes have long since been abandoned for the spontaneity of Thursday night creations. Tuesdays have become an excuse to make cookies. For my family, like for many, the kitchen was the center of our house. Maybe my love of cooking came early, sitting on the floor in my parent’s apartment banging spoons to pots, maybe later playing with the scraps of Christmas cookie dough or eventually when I was set loose on my own to stir risotto in endless circles or curl my fingers under while I chopped onions into long, thin strips. It’s a running joke among my friends that I should have gone to culinary school instead of medical school. Earlier this week, I escaped early from the hospital and stood in my kitchen to make tacos and beans and calabacitas. I filled plates with warm corn tortillas and fat slices of avocado and broke down bell peppers into fine pieces. Somewhere in the middle, as I flicked pans and shredded cabbage, I thought about Joe. Joe’s hospital stay had been endless — his …
GUESS WHO’S THE AUTHOR OF THE NEWEST ARTICLE OVER AT INTRAINING??
THIS GIRL!!! :) :)
I am just the most excited to be writing over at inTraining!! If you aren’t already subscribed to them here on tumblr (intrainingdoc) or subscribed to their newsletter from their website— GET ON THAT!!!
It’s an amazing publication written by med students (like me!!) on everything from health policy issues to personal narratives.
Go go go go! Do it now!! (And while you’re at it, read this awesome article I wrote!!)
by Rojjanaporn Pulmanausahakul, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Prasert Auewarakul, and Duncan R. Smith
Summary In the last few years, chikungunya has become a major problem in Southeast Asia, with large numbers of cases being reported in Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. Much of the current epidemic of chikungunya in Southeast Asia is being driven by the emergence of a strain of chikungunya virus that originated in Africa and spread to islands in the Indian Ocean, as well as to India and Sri Lanka, and then onwards to Southeast Asia. There is currently no specific treatment for chikungunya and no vaccine is available for this disease. This review seeks to provide a short update on the reemergence of chikungunya in Southeast Asia and the prospects for control of this disease.
There have been 2 confirmed cases of this in Florida.
As daily temperatures increase, so does the number of patients seeking treatment for kidney stones. In a study that may both reflect and foretell a warming planet’s impact on human health, a research team found a link between hot days and kidney stones in 60,000 patients in several U.S. cities with varying climates.
"We found that as daily temperatures rise, there is a rapid increase in the probability of patients presenting over the next 20 days with kidney stones," said study leader Gregory E. Tasian, M.D., M.Sc., M.S.C.E., a pediatric urologist and epidemiologist at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), who is on the staff of the Hospital’s Kidney Stone Center as well as the Hospital’s Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness (CPCE).
Funding: Funds from the National Institutes of Health (grants HD060550 and DK70003), supported this study, along with a research fellowship from the Medical Research Council, U.K. In addition to their CHOP titles, Tasian and Keren are on the faculty of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
The full extent of people’s health problems that might be helped by taking probiotics has not yet been realized, experts say.
"The future is bright for probiotics, but we need to get a lot more work done," said Dr. Allan Walker, a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and an investigator at the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center at MassGeneral Hospital for Children in Boston.
For example, researchers would like to better understand how probiotics work in the body, and pin down the exact organisms and amounts of them responsible for their beneficial effects along with studying the conditions where probiotics may be most helpful.
When he looks at what lies ahead for probiotics, Walker said he can envision people taking probiotics before heading to developing countries, to help prevent traveler’s diarrhea from contaminated food or water. He also imagines that some day, babies born into families where allergies are common will be given specific probiotics during infancy to protect them from developing allergies. However, the evidence to strongly recommend probiotics for either of these purposes is not yet there, he said.
It might seem surprising that the microbes lining the intestinal tract can have far-reaching benefits beyond the digestive system. But bacteria in the intestines are very important to health and are almost like another organ system, Walker said.
Gut bacteria provide substances involved in supporting immune activity, thwarting bad bacteria and preventing inflammation that can have profound effects on other parts of the body, he said.
Research has also shown that the influence of gut bacteria begins at an early age. Any disruption to the initial colonization process of intestinal bacteria in infants during their first year of life is thought to be the basis for disease later in life,” Walker said.
Walk through a giant 115 feet tall replica of the human body at the Corpus Science Museum in the Netherlands. Your Fantastic Voyage through the museum starts with an escalator ride into an open sore on your giant victim’s leg and ends among the pulsing neurons in his brain. Explore the ventricles of the heart….
Protecting our brain and central nervous system are the meninges, derived from the Greek term for “membrane”. You may have heard of meningitis - this is when the innermost layer of the meninges swells, often due to infection, and can cause nerve or brain damage, and sometimes death.
There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In Latin, “mater” means “mother”. The term comes from the enveloping nature of these membranes, but we later learned how apt it was, because of how protective and essential the meningeal layers are.
The dura mater is the outermost and toughest membrane. Its name means “tough mother”.
The dura is most important for keeping cerebrospinal fluid where it belongs, and for allowing the safe transport of blood to and from the brain. This layer is also water-tight - if it weren’t, our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would leak out, and our central nervous system would have no cushion! Its leathery qualities mean that even when the skull is broken, more often than not, the dura (and the brain it encases) is not punctured.
The arachnoid mater is the middle membrane. Its name means "spider-like mother", because of its web-like nature.
The arachnoid is attached directly to the deep side of the dura, and has small protrusions into the sinuses within the dura, which allows for CSF to return to the bloodstream and not become stagnant. It also has very fine, web-like projections downward, which attach to the pia mater. However, it doesn’t contact the pia mater in the same way as the dura: the CSF flows between the two meningeal layers, in the subarachnoid space. The major superficial blood vessels are on top of the arachnoid, and below the dura.
Pia mater is the innermost membrane, which follows the folds (sulci) of the brain and spinal cord most closely. Its name means “tender mother”.
The pia is what makes sure the CSF stays between the meninges, and doesn’t just get absorbed into the brain or spinal cord. It also allows for new CSF from the ventricles to be shunted into the subarachnoid space, and provides pathways for blood vessels to nourish the brain. While the pia mater is very thin, it is water-tight, just like the dura mater. The pia is also the primary blood-brain barrier, making sure that no plasma proteins or organic molecules penetrate into the CSF.
Because of this barrier, medications which need to reach the brain or meninges must be administered directly into the CSF.
Images: Anatomy: Practical and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1909.
Anatomical flap up books that simulated human dissection!
These come from a most excellent exhibit at Duke University called Animated Anatomies. These anatomical pop-up books were used by medical students to study anatomy and surgery in 3-D context from the 16th century.