A thrombus, or blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Blood clotting is an important mechanism to help the body repair injured blood vessels.
Blood consists of: -red blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide (the waste product of metabolism) -white blood cells that fight infection -platelets that are part of the clotting process of the body -blood plasma, which contains fluid, chemicals and proteins that are important for bodily functions.
Complex mechanisms exist in the bloodstream to form clots where they are needed. If the lining of the blood vessels becomes damaged, platelets are recruited to the injured area to form an initial plug. These activated platelets release chemicals that start the clotting cascade, using a series of clotting factors produced by the body. Ultimately, fibrin is formed, the protein that crosslinks with itself to form a mesh that makes up the final blood clot.
Blood clots are healthy and lifesaving when they stop bleeding. However, blood clots can also form abnormally, causing a heart attack, stroke, or other serious medical problems.
Most heart attacks and strokes result from the sudden formation of a blood clot on a waxy cholesterol plaque inside an artery in the heart or brain. When the plaque ruptures suddenly, thrombogenic substances inside the plaque are exposed to blood, triggering the blood clotting process.
Also know as congenital talipes equinovarus, clubfoot is a congenital abnormality resulting in the internal rotation of the foot at the ankle. It is relatively common, affecting 1:1000 births. However if treated early, the individual can recover completely.
The deformity seen on this radiograph is frequently noted in which syndrome of the same name? Hint: This is seen as a complication of wearing high heels frequently, ladies! ANSWER: http://goo.gl/PHL0e5
At least 750 million children in the world have diets that are deficient in vitamin A, but in countries with high GDP, this deficiency is not of public health significance. Donna Bozzone and Douglas Green explore the implications of genetic engineering in an excerpt from upcoming textbook Biology for the Informed Citizen, aimed to help students connect the concepts of biology with the consequences of biology.
Listening to caregivers from other countries, it’s easy to feel exasperated about U.S healthcare. American hospitals are filled with good people trying to do good work, but at every turn the system of misplaced incentives gets in the way of good patient care.
Indeed, the most pressing problem with American healthcare is that it is too wasteful.
Interesting but I have to disagree with his point about doctors not having to do “paperwork” because they are overqualified to be spending their time doing this. EBP has shown that there are less errors involved when doctors input their own orders. The article doesn’t go into that much detail on that point though, I’d certainly like to know more.
Women aged 15-44 are more likely to be maimed or die from male violence than cancer, traffic accidents, and war combined.
By Feminist talk at Students For Liberty’s 2013 Austin Regional Conference and why feminism is not outdated (via cuntcastle)
A new report from the Commonwealth Fund shows that people in other industrialized nations get doctors’ appointments faster than Americans do.
Opponents of healthcare reform have, historically, argued that we should be wary of imitating foreign healthcare systems because people in other countries have to wait longer to see the doctor. Cheaper, more universal care, the argument seems to be, comes with the tradeoff of slower care.
This is not necessarily true, according to new numbers from the Commonwealth Fund, a nonpartisan organization that studies industrialized healthcare systems around the world.
The organization surveyed between 1,000 and 5,400 people in 11 industrialized nations. The first thing they found is fairly well-known: American healthcare is mind-bogglingly expensive, as compared to that of other Western democracies:
Americans are far more likely to experience a “cost-related” access issue or to spend more than $1,000 out of pocket than citizens of other countries.
But what’s less talked-about is that we don’t actually get better access to medical care for our money. People in many countries that spend far less on healthcare than the U.S. are more likely to say they can usually get a same-day or next-day appointment when they need it, and to say they can get after-hours treatment without going to the ER. This is true for countries that have single-payer systems, like the U.K. (though not Canada), and for many Western European countries that have multi-payer systems like ours.
The one access measure the U.S. performed slightly better on was in the ability to get specialist appointments within two months. However, more than half of all U.S. doctors’ visits are paid to a primary care physician, and the most commonly cited reason is a cough, according to the CDC. And even so, people in Switzerland and the U.K. were both still more likely to say they waited four weeks or less for a specialist appointment than Americans were.
While common in cattle (especially young weaned bulls and heifers), actinomycosis is rare in humans. It’s an opportunistic infection, becoming entrenched while the immune system is compromised by disease or malnutrition, and when it becomes established inside the body (most often the chest) is often misdiagnosed as a neoplasm (neoplasm = “new growth” - a tumor).
On the face, it causes a slow-growing, lumpy surface, that ignores tissue layers, and creates sinuses (holes) that spontaneously heal and recur as the disease progresses.
While once thought to be a mycosis, or fungal infection (hence its name), actinomycosis is now known to be caused by anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria. As it’s still a very uncommon condition in humans, actinomycosis has not developed much resistance to antibiotics, and is generally responsive to penicillin and amoxicillin. However, because the bacteria can become so entrenched in areas that do not receive high amounts of blood flow, the antibiotics must be continued for up to a year, if the disease has been present for a long time.
“Leading academic journals are distorting the scientific process and represent a “tyranny” that must be broken, according to a Nobel prize winner who has declared a boycott on the publications.
Randy Schekman, a US biologist who won the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine this year and receives his prize in Stockholm on Tuesday, said his lab would no longer send research papers to the top-tier journals, Nature, Cell and Science.
Schekman said pressure to publish in “luxury” journals encouraged researchers to cut corners and pursue trendy fields of science instead of doing more important work. The problem was exacerbated, he said, by editors who were not active scientists but professionals who favoured studies that were likely to make a splash.
The prestige of appearing in the major journals has led the Chinese Academy of Sciences to pay successful authors the equivalent of $30,000 (£18,000). Some researchers made half of their income through such “bribes”, Schekman said in an interview.
Writing in the Guardian, Schekman raises serious concerns over the journals’ practices and calls on others in the scientific community to take action.
"I have published in the big brands, including papers that won me a Nobel prize. But no longer," he writes. "Just as Wall Street needs to break the hold of bonus culture, so science must break the tyranny of the luxury journals."
Schekman is the editor of eLife, an online journal set up by the Wellcome Trust. Articles submitted to the journal – a competitor to Nature, Cell and Science – are discussed by reviewers who are working scientists and accepted if all agree. The papers are free for anyone to read.
Schekman criticises Nature, Cell and Science for artificially restricting the number of papers they accept, a policy he says stokes demand “like fashion designers who create limited-edition handbags.” He also attacks a widespread metric called an “impact factor”, used by many top-tier journals in their marketing” (read more).
Ok, so a quick explanation of what “Killer T” or cytotoxic lymphocytes are so I can finish studying lol. For the people who asked, cytotoxic t cells are cells of the (Adaptive) immune system that attack and destroy (by releasing molecules that poke holes in the target cells or cause cells to undergo apoptosis [a.k.a. cell suicide]) the cells that display their cognate antigen. It’s important that the cells have not only their cognate antigen but that their C.A. must be presented by something called an MHC class I molecule. MHC (major histocompatibility complex) it just is basically a cell protein complex that their cognate antigen will be bound to. A cognate antigen is a foreign molecule that is recognized by a specific antibody. Killer T cells are basically boss and pretty awesome once you begin to study immunity. Actually I think most people have heard of Natural Killer cells, cytotoxic T’s are very similar but NK cells don’t need a cognate antigen or the MHC molecule or w.e. they just attack cells that have been “marked” (opsonized) for destruction. I just kind of informally introduced them but if you wanted to learn more, I’ll put some links at the bottom of this and if you want me to write me (I could write a book!) just message me and remind me after finals :) So totally remind me to expand on this and explain things, sorry to be a dick and just kind of throw terms and stuff at you!
Syndaver Labs produces these artificial cadavers for medical professionals. Although there is a bit of hyper-realism to these, it helps medical students and other health care students to gain access to bodies that more closely resemble living tissue.
This makes me think about the future of robotics and such.. and how close we must be getting to having replicas of bodies that resemble the real thing